H. G. Wells was right when he said that human history was becoming more and more a race between education and catastrophe. A cursory glance at the world today suffices to support this statement. The tragic duality of world politics between east and west, discrimination between races and religious creeds - all these problems resolve themselves fundamentaJly to a lack of education. Education, therefore, is of supreme importance.

With Comprehensive Education likely to become a political reality within the next decade politicians and all those in positions of power and influence would do well to consider this. Comprehensive Education undeniably has many virtues but it has one overriding defect. However skilful its administrators may be, the ratio of pupils to teachers is almost certainly bound to increase. This would be fatal in a world which seems to show less and less concern for the individual and seems to put more and more trust in faceless, often callous, bureaucratic committees. Education is surely not a matter of producing robots suitably qualified to scrape out an existence in the "rat race" of modern society? This philosophy, however, so appropriate in this materialistic age, has taken a firm grip upon our schools and universities. For instance the 'O' and 'A' level system of examinations, instead of promoting a spirit of mutual co-operation that could be so beneficial to society, tends only to encourage an ant-like form of competition.

There is, therefore, a radical need to re-emphasize the aim of education. To say simply in the words of a well-worn cliche that education should teach one ""how to live"" is not sufficient. Living is dependent upon a set of values. Our schools and universities must therefore provide a suitable atmosphere in which their pupils can seek for themselves the ultimate values of life.


We recorded at this time last year what appeared to be a substantial number of changes in the School's personnel. This process seems to have continued since our last issue was published, and we fear that even the younger Old Boys will soon be finding, on their visits to the School, that there is no one left whom they knew in their school days.

DEATHS. The School was saddened at the beginning of May by the news of the sudden death of Mr. H.A. COLE who had served the School ably over a number of years as Laboratory Assistant. He had been a dedicated servant of the School, and as a friend and parent, he had always taken a very keen interest in all the facets of its life.
It was with profound shock that the older members of the Staff heard of the death of Mrs. S.A. FOX in February. She had been the loyal helpmate of Mr. Fox throughout his long service as Mathematics master, and had given the School two sons of whom she had every reason to be proud.
Our deepest sympathy goes out to Mrs. Cole and Mr. Fox in the tragedies that have befallen them.

RETIREMENTS. ln our last issue we foreshadowed the forthcoming retirement of Mr. W. LANCASHIRE. His departure at Christmas brought to an end yet another chapter in the history of Hardye's, for he had spent a quarter of a century in its service, both in the classroom and on the cricket field, and, ably assisted by his wife, had run Southfield House from 1943 to 1961.
It is good, as a master comes to the end of his teaching career, that boys should be reminded of his interests outside the classroom in his younger days. When Mr. Lancashire came to Hardye's in 1943 most of his activities as a sportsman were behind him: his footballing days at centre-half for Southampton F.C. in the English League were over; so too his formidable prowess at water polo. But he was still a redoubtable cricketer, with considerable experience in the Hampshire County XI as a fast bowler, and his feats as an opening bat at club level in the Southampton area are something of a legend. He was still good enough on his arrival in Dorchester to be elected captain of Dorset in the Minor Counties and to hold that position for a good many seasons. Old Boys of the 1946-50 era will surely remember their experience of bowling and fielding to him for half the match, then batting against his bowling, usually for a much briefer period of the afternoon! It would, indeed, have been an education in itself for the present generation to have seen him in full cry on a good batting wicket.
We wish him many years of happy retirement. He will certainly not be inactive, as he is continuing the good work that he has been doing in Dorchester for the past 25 years - as a member of the Bench of Magistrates, chairman of the Y.M.C.A., and president of the Dorchester Cricket Club.
We have also said farewell and thank-you to Mr. LEE and Mr. SAUNDERS, both of whom retired prematurely through ill-health, Mr. Lee after some twenty years and Mr. Saunders after a shorter, but none the less valuable, period. They had been Headmaster and Deputy Headmaster respectively at Wollaston House for a number of years, and their departure has meant considerable changes in personnel at the Lower School, as well as "up top".
We are very glad to report that in both cases there has been a pleasing improvement in health. Our best wishes go with them into their well-earned retirement.
The gap left by these early retirements was filled temporarily by two young Old Boys, Peter Harris and Stephen Fraser, for whose services we are very grateful.
Two of the younger staff moved on to pastures new in July. Mr. DIBB and Mr. GENT had been with us for a mere four years, but in that time had become an established part of the School's life. We learned much from these lively north-countrymen, and we hope we older members of staff taught them something in return. We are grateful to them for their services as House Tutors and as Officers in the C.C.F. Our loss is the gain of their new schools, Mr. Dibb's at Stamford School, and Mr. Gent's at St. Peter's, Bournemouth.
Mr. DEREK WORDEN, who had been teaching Music part-time, left to enter a College of Education. We welcome, as replacements:-
Mr. R.L. GROGUT as a member of the P.E. staff. He was educated at Rotherham Grammar School, Madeley College of Education and the University of Keele Institute of Education. He already has an impressive record to his credit on soccer, hockey and cricket fields up and down the country.
Mr. JOHN OAKSHATT, educated at Purbrook G.S., Portsmouth and Westfield College, London University, where he graduated B.Sc. with Honours in Chemistry and Zoology.
Mr. J.R. ROBERTS of Truro School and St. Catharine's College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. with Honours in German and French. He comes to us from Aldenham School, Elstree.
Mr. E.J. WINPENNY, as full-time Music Master, educated at Ripon Grammar School and the College of St. Mark and St. John, Chelsea.
M. DANIEL DOGUET, who comes from Cherbourg and the University of Caen, as our new French assistant.

Mr. J.B. HAWTHORNE to Miss Gillian Stevens, at Winslow, Bucks.
Mr. J.R. DIBB to Miss Sarah Daws, at Chickerell.
Mr. G. RYALL to Miss Marilyn Susan Foss, at Weymouth.

To Mr. and Mrs. LACEY, a son, Mark.
To Mr. and Mrs. BOWMAN, a daughter, Clare Elizabeth.

It has been a difficult and unsettling year. The Quater-Centenary celebrations occupied a great part of the year. The construction of the swimming pool, the installation of a new heating system (which gave us an extra week's holiday in January), and the complete re-wiring of the electrical circuits of the Main School caused a good deal of dirt, noise and distraction. Added to all this, we had a visit in force by Her Majesty's Inspectors of Schools in February, and there were the ever-present rumours of the reorganisation of education in Dorchester on comprehensive lines. These events, we are told, come in cycles of various diameters (if that is the right word). It will be quite a while before we have another Quater-Centenary celebration: the pool and the heating and lighting systems should survive for a decade or two. But they all came this year, and their cumulative effect was somewhat unsettling, and, in some respects, damaging to morale. We look forward to a more restful twelve months, with few of the disturbances which distract a school from its proper function.


At the commencement of our Quater Centenary Celebrations a service of Thanksgiving was held in Salisbury Cathedral on Thursday, 15th May, by kind invitation of the Dean.
The Bishop of Salisbury, the Rt. Rev. Joseph Fison, gave a most inspiring sermon concluding with this piece of advice to all scholars, "get wisdom, get understanding but remember the fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom".


In this, Hardye's Quater Centenary year, a special effort was made by the Combined Cadet Force to make this occasion a memorable one. Unfortunately, however, the weather did not prove to be on our side, and 23rd May brought with it steady rain. ln spite of this, the activities continued.
At 10.45 a.m. the Parade formed up, having marched on to the accompaniment of the 1st Battn. Royal Welsh Fusiliers Band. The Inspecting Officer, General Sir Charles Harington, K.C.B., C.B.E., D.S.O., M.C. arrived at 1100 hrs., and took the general salute. The Fusiliers played a variety of tunes, whilst General Harington inspected the contingent. The march past in line followed, the C.C.F. then reforming in open order. A fly-past by a Chipmunk aircraft piloted by Cadet Haine was then due to take place but, owing to the weather conditions, had to be called off. The parade continued with the Advance in Review Order and with the General Salute. The March Off in column heralded the end of the morning's activities. The parade had been conducted by Under-Officer Churcher and R.S.M. Buckland.
After the lunch interval, the Red Arrows team gave a truly breathtaking display. It was unbelievable that this was the display designed for unfavourable conditions. This event was a double honour for the school. Not only were we the first school to be recognised in this fashion, but also an Old Boy, Flt.­Lieutenant R. Duckett, was a member of the team.
At 1350 hrs., a colourful scene took place. This was a Guard Mounting Ceremony, undertaken in four sections. First of these was a group dressed in the uniforms of the 39th Foot, to commemorate the Battle of Plassey in 1757. This was the first engagement in which an Old Boy is known to have taken part.

Top Left: General Harington inspects the Corps of Drums. Top right: The R.N. Section. Centre: General Harington presents Trophy to Cdt. Cpl. Haine.
Bottom Left: Band of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers. Bottom Right: The Red Arrows.

Second came seven cadets in the uniforms first worn by the cadet force in 1904. This was the foundation year of the school O.T.C. and the force of that time numbered seven. Sections three and four represented the most recent additions to the Combined Cadet Force in the form of the Naval and R.A.F. sections. A great deal of hard work went into this part of the day's proceedings, and all those who were involved in any way must be thanked.
A Royal Naval Helicopter Display followed. An air-sea rescue operation was enacted by a "Whirlwind" helicopter, a "Wasp" machine also being present .
Next came an Aerial Ropeway Race between the Royal Naval and Royal Engineers sections. This preceded Silent Drill by the R.A.F. section and an Assault Course Race between all three sections. Both the Aerial Ropeway and the Assault Course Races were won by the Royal Naval section.
Throughout the day, various demonstrations were manned by members of the Regular Forces, all arms being represented.
"At 1520 hrs., the Inspecting Officer gave his address. In this he congratulated everyone upon the effort made, commenting that drill on wet grass was at all times a difficult task . He was then presented with a set of Commemoration goblets by Mr. Frank Mills, President of the Old Boys' Association.
An extremely successful day was then concluded by the Royal Welsh Fusiliers' Band who played, amongst others, the Sunset Hymn, and Beating Retreat.
This occasion certainly proved itself worthy of the traditions of Hardye's School, and is one that will not readily be forgotten by all those present.



Never before have so many voices of dissent been raised against the holding of a school commemoration. It has been variously described as "a waste of time" and more poignantly by some as "a piece of propaganda" on the part of the Governors and Staff of the school. It might be profitable therefore to consider the uses of such an occasion. These would seem to be two. Firstly, it helps to keep parents in touch with the school and in this respect the lines of this magazine provide an ample opportunity to comment on the comparatively small number of parents that do in fact bother to turn up. Secondly, it enables some public thanks to be given to all those who work hard and very often unnoticed and unrewarded on behalf of the school.
The service was, as usual, conducted in St. George's Church by Canon E.B. Brooks. "The incomparable importance of Christ" was the subject of a stirring sermon given by the Bishop of Sherborne, the Rt. Rev. V. Pike.
Reporting on the activities of the past year the Headmaster said it had been a truly unforgettable year as they had tried to carry out three operations, each of which was a full-time job. Apart from the question of the future the daily routine had to be maintained and the Quater-Centenary celebrations organized. However, "the building of the swimming pool has served to remind us that the present and the future must not be excluded in nostalgic yearnings for the glories of the past", he added.
While emphasising that the school must not be unduly perturbed by, or shrink from, changes, he urged those involved in various reorganisation schemes during the next year not to lose sight of the real issues involved.
"I notice two trends in the recommendations of almost all these reports," he said. "The first is centralization of control and I greatly fear that as the years go by we shall find more and more of the essentially personal decisions concerning ourselves, our homes and our families taken away from those most closely affected, to be made by faceless committees, remote and unapproachable. The second is a blind faith in the large centralized administrative organization".
"We have seen the consequences of the battery system of education in the universities," he continued, "and I would submit that to do so to the schools would be to create a monster of terrifying potential".
The prizes were presented by the Lord Lieutenant of Dorset, Colonel J.W. Weld, O.B.E., T.D., J.P., who was introduced by the Chairman of the School Governors, Sir David Williams.
The head-boy, M. V. W. Hardy, proposed a vote of thanks.


The pupils, parents and benefactors of the school are frequently assured that in our school we have a worthwhile tradition and heritage to be maintained and defended against the "monster" of Comprehensive Education. Evidence to support or to refute this statement may be seen at the School Play, the A.G.I., Prize-Giving, in the efforts of school societies and at school and house matches. These cover the extra­mural activities of the school but the academic side of the school is but rarely visible.
This year's Open Day took place on 10th July. The majority of the exhibitions contained project work where the research, building and explanation of an exhibit was completed by the pupil under the guidance of a master.
The theme of the Modern Languages and Geography departments was the ever-growing use of teaching aids - tape-recorders, slide, cineprojectors and models. Such techniques as typesetting, printing, lino cuts, sculpture and metalwork are becoming common among the more traditional pencil, brush and paint work of the Art Room. The newly-established Economics Dept. is fired by the seemingly untiring and unending efforts of Colonel Ring. The Dramatic Society by staging a display of mementos, photographs and programmes showed that it intends to remain part of school life. History from formerly being a list of dates, battles and kings now seems to be more a social study with dates thrown in.
The Science subjects have the advantage in that their work is by virtue of its nature more easily displayed. The Physics, Chemistry and Biology Laboratories made a relentless assault on the senses. Experiments ranging from the dissection of a duck to the testing of a radioactive source leave the impression that the sciences are extremely diverse and challenging even at the elementary stages taught in schools.
Sport still plays an important role in the school. Unfortunately, however, the gymnastics display and the cricket match were watched by few.


10th July, 1969

The celebrations of the Summer Term were brought to a fitting close on a beautiful summer day with a three-fold event, consisting of the Old Hardyeans' Banquet, the opening of the Swimming Pool and an Open Day for parents for which Staff and boys had worked hard at a variety of exhibitions.
The Banquet, held in a marquee in the grounds, was attended by over 200 Old Boys, parents, guests and friends of the School. The principal speaker was Mr. Frederick A. Warner, C.M.G ., who was due, in September, to take up an appointment as British Ambassador and Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations in New York. In his witty speech in which he proposed the toast "The School and the Club" Mr. Warner stressed the need for discipline; but boys must be individuals at the same time. He believed that Hardye's School was particularly fitted to turn out people who could make decisions at top speed: the School could develop their individuality. "Let's hope," he added, "that Hardye's will always be a real Wessex school which reflects how we live in this part of the world".
It was most appropriate that the response to the toast should be made by Lt. Col. the Lord Wynford, M.B.E., a member of the School's Governors and Chairman of the Quater-Centenary Committee. Without his drive and skill and attention to detail, it is doubtful whether any of the celebrations could have attained the success which attended them. He declared that the strength of the School rests on a tripod foundation - the Old Boys, the parents, and the School and Staff. "If Hardye's can continue to build up the foundation on these three elements, then you have real strength: in the words of a famous soldier, 'the many-muscled strength of unity'. Without unity there is no strength".
The toast "Our Guests" was proposed by Mr. Frank Mills, President of the Old Hardyeans' Club and the Mayor of Dorchester, Councillor J.M. Matthews, replied.
After the banquet the School's new £8,000 swimming pool, which is a memorial to the late Mr. R.W. Hill was opened by his widow, Mrs. Ann Hill. She unveiled a commemoration plaque honouring her late husband who was Headmaster of the School from 1927 to 1955.
The Archdeacon of Sherborne, the Venerable E.J.G. Ward, dedicated the pool.



There is a tradition, and little more, that Hardye's School existed before 1569, as part of the Franciscan Friary which stood on the south bank of the Froome. The friary certainly undertook some teaching, since in 1485 one Sir John Byconil, who had built several mills a little further down the river, devoted his profits to the friary chest, and set aside some of them for the education of boys, "none of them to be called by their surnames". And it looks as if, even at this date, the monks were merely adding to facilities which already existed, rather than making an entirely new departure.
What is not clear is whether there was an continuity between the friary school and the school built by the townsmen in 1569. The friary was dissolved in 1538, and a grant of just over ten pounds per year, made by Henry VIII to Edward Weldon in 1540, may represent a concession by which the school was to be maintained. If this was indeed its purpose, it did not represent a permanent endowment, and the foundation-deed of Hardye's School (drawn up in 1579) reflects the uneasy feeling of the townsmen that a school could not be maintained without extra help, "many people in the saide Town and places adjoining being willing but unable to sustain such Continuall Burden and Charge". The town records show that building took place in 1569, and they carefully note the regular payments for stone (which came from Poxwell) and workmanship. One John Roye was paid the princely sum of two shillings and sixpence for carving the Queen's arms upon a tablet of stone; that tablet is one of the few pieces of the original building to remain in existence, and is now set in the wall of the north-east wing of the main school building. No mention is made of the source of the building funds, which seem to have come entirely from the townsmen's pockets. And the citizens of Dorchester seem to have gone on paying for annual maintenance, including payment of the master, until 1579.
At what stage Thomas Hardye of Frampton and Melcombe Regis became interested is not known. He was almost certainly not on the scene in 1569. He first appears in a document dated August 3, 1579, which takes the form of an agreement between the townsmen and a number of interested outsiders on the one hand, and Thomas Hardye on the other. By this agreement control of the school was given to Hardye, includ ing the right to appoint governors and staff, and to make whatever regulations he thought fit for the school. In return he gave property in Weymouth, Melcombe Regis, Frome Vauchurch, the rent of land in Shilvinghampton (between Portesham and Upwey), and seven houses and half an acre of land in Dorchester it self. During his life he retained his control over all th is property, but he guaranteed that the revenue from it should be devoted entirely to the school. At his death it was to pass to the control of the school governors, who were obliged to use the profits in the same way.
This arrangement was changed slightly in 1585, when Hardye withdrew his gift of property in Melcombe Regis, and instead gave the rents of Frome Whitfield Farm. A century later this was to cause trouble, for the lease expired, and with the disappearance of the Frome Whitfield rent the master's salary dropped suddenly. Hardye appears to have been anxious to leave the Melcombe Regis property to his nephew, but it was not a far-sighted gesture to substitute a temporary lease for what would have otherwise been permanent control of more valuable land in the Weymouth area.
It is not difficult to see why the townsmen should have turned to Hardye. His family, settling in west Dorset in 1488, now owned large areas of the Frome valley, as well as property in other parts of the county; and Hardye, although a younger son of the family - and thus not heir to the greater part of their property - had made a considerable fortune for himself. He had only one child, a daughter, and the fact that he left her nothing after his death suggests that she was already well-provided for in her marriage. We have no precise outline of his career, but we do know that by 1558 he was Knight Marshal of England, a post now abolished but at this time still holding considerable influence. At one time it had been second only to the throne in the orders of chivalry; by the reign of Elizabeth I it had certainly diminished in prestige, but still carried with it the control of the notorious Marshalsea prison and a respected position on the fringe of Elizabeth's court. Several documents relating to Hardye have survived (most are now among the Dorset County Archives) and all suggest a man of very considerable means. Since one of the outsiders associated with the town was William Paulet, first Marquis of Winchester, there could have been little difficulty in persuading Hardye to act: the Paulets had been patrons of the Hardyes on their first settlement in Dorset, and throughout his career Hardye was friendly with several members of the family.
To be strictly accurate, Hardye was not the founder of Hardye's School: but the borough of Dorchester, which had been responsible for its establishment, certainly regarded him as the founder, and the twentieth century is justified in following their example. At his funeral, on October 18, 1599, the following entry was made in the burial register of St. Peter's Church:


Thomas Hardy, armiger, fundator
scholae grammaticae Dorcestrie,
1569, obiit in aedibus Johannis
Browne de Frampton, decimo
quinto die Octobris 1599, et
sepultus est 18° die ejusdem
mensis, in parvulo sacello in
australi parti ecclesiae Divi
Petri, villae Dorcestrae, anno

Two seventeenth-century diarists also stated that Hardye had founded the school in 1569; and if they, both old boys of the school, were not prepared to accept documentary evidence to the contrary, who are we to do so?
The name of the first headmaster is unknown. Whoever he was, he may have been spared some of the problems which faced his successors. For two things were clear from the beginning: firstly, the school was a ""freeschole"", and therefore could charge no fees for the tuition of local children; secondly, as a grammar school, it would confine itself to the study of Latin and Greek. Both these requirements were to cause trouble in later years. Despite Hardye's benefaction and a number of subsequent gifts, the school was never wealthy, and the temptation to add to the Master's stipend by imposing tuition fees was too strong to be resisted. To some extent the problem was solved by ensuring that the Master of the school also held the living of St. Peter's, Holy Trinity, or All Saints'. But extra and unexpected charges were to come: on August 6, 1613, the school buildings, together with 170 other houses in the town, were destoyed by fire. Rebuilding began at once, but most of the expenses were borne by the headmaster, Robert Cheeke, and at the time of his death the governors still owed him the very substantial sum of five hundred pounds. They did, eventually, repay it to his widow, but they were clearly in difficulties. At a public meeting on September 16, 1631

sundry discontented persons . . . complained . . . about the free schoole which they said should be free for all, whereas the deed being produced showed the founder meant it should be free only for poor men's children. Sir Francis Ashley was present at the debate and showed them their errors, yet they went away womanishly and . . . many cried out a free schoole, a free schoole.

The meeting had one outcome useful to posterity, however: in order to clarify the matter several copies of the founder's deed were circulated among the governors, and it is one of these which still survives as Item MJ 63 of the Dorset Archives. The original document, of which there were three copies, has completely disappeared. Despite the care taken, the governors of 1631 appear to have read the deed very largely to suit themselves, since the only reference to parents' financial abilities appears in the phrase "children in all degrees", which suggests that the townsmen were right. Nonetheless, the governors charged - as, indeed, did most of their successors, and most of their counterparts in other comparable schools.
Despite their apparent disregard for the founder's wish, the governors may have beeh wise, even if they were not right. Must of the succeeding headmasters complained about their salary, and one, Gabriel Reeve, who was headmaster during the Civil War, appears to have used his standing quarrel with the governors as an excuse to come or go as he thought fit. At one time he absented himself for almost three years, before blandly resuming his post. When he was finally dismissed in 1650 he refused to move, and instead sent the governors a "demand for arrears of rent and stipend". It took them six months to remove him; they leave no indication of how long it took to pay him.
Several eminent men were approached to succeed Reeve in his post; a couple accepted, but each in turn was encouraged to withdraw by the subsequent headmaster of Sherborne School, who for some reason felt himself obliged to warn them off. Eventually the governors decided to warn him off, particularly as he appears to have tried to set up a rival school:

April 12, 1651. This day Mr. Birstall was sent for into this hall and this Company declared they were not pleased with his taking of a place in this Towne (as they conceive) in opposition unto them, and therefore they cannot approve of his settling in that place . . .

Birstall took himself off, and became headmaster of Sherborne in 1653.
Eventually a successor was found. Samuel Cromleholm, who had been under-Master at St. Paul's School, London, stayed for six years, and if a school is judged by the number of its admissions to Oxford and Cambridge, and by its esteem in the town, Cromleholm was one of the great Dorchester headmasters. When he left, in 1657, it was to become one of the great High Masters of St. Paul's. But Cromleholm was only induced to come after a considerable rearrangement of the school's finances and, at his own stipulation, with the provision that "the freeschole should be free for all mens sonnes". The master had still, of course, to be paid, and an engaging method of supplementing school funds was adopted which might profitably be continued still: to the regular stipend from school lands was added the profit from the town brewery.
Cromleholm's immediate followers were less successful, and at the close of the headmastership of John Stevens (1662-64) the town records noted sadly that "the Schole is much impayred in reputation and number of schollers". Stevens's successor, a more learned man who translated The Whole Duty of Man into Latin, and licensed it for publication in 1678, perhaps repaired the damage slightly: he did at least leave the school one memento, for the bound manuscript of his book is still school property. His successors left more, for though records for the eighteenth century are scanty there is enough to show that, in the words of one commentator, it had become "a seminary of excellence and repute", and its pupils were drawn from well beyond the county's boundaries. John Wesley and the Dorset historian, John Hutchins, both received their education at Dorchester during this period: Wesley's response was to publish, as one of his earliest works, a satire on his headmaster; Hutchins included praise for his in The History of Dorset.
Eighteenth-century progress was not repeated in the nineteenth century, largely for reasons beyond the governors' control. At a time when there was an increasing demand for a broader education, the governors found themselves hampered by an apparent obligation to teach Latin and Greek and nothing else. Again the public stepped in to voice their objections; again the founder's deed was consulted; and on this occasion legal advice was sought. The school would have been better to leave the lawyers out of it. The lawyer, Mr. James Stevens, decided that fees could be charged only for subjects other than Latin and Greek; he also reached the conclusion that the governors were not allowed to teach subjects other than Latin or Greek. There is not a word to this effect in the charter, and the lawyer appears to have made his decision purely on the grounds of practice in other similar schools. His hair-splitting interpretation, if it can be called an interpretation, stood in the way of progress for the next thirty years, with the result that until State intervention in the 1870s Dorchester Grammar School went slowly downhill. The townsmen responded sensibly, by encouraging other schools which offered a more general education. To one of these went the young Thomas Hardy; in another William Barnes taught originally and imaginatively. Barnes's one attempt to become headmaster of the grammar school - it is difficult to believe that he would have been content to accept the lawyer's decision - was blocked because he was not a member of Holy Orders. The regulations became a stranglehold: where the school had once sent pupils, in considerable numbers, to Oxford and Cambridge, it now thought itself lucky if it could prepare them for admission to the better-known public schools. Soon it thought itself lucky if it had any pupils at all. In 1871 the buildings had become decrepit, and a government report stated that

the day scholars have diminished in number, and there are no boarders. The Master receives into his house a lunatic patient, from whom it is said he is paid £400 per annum. He is evidently without influence or public confidence in the town, and it does not seem probable the school will ever recover itself under his care . . .

The State must take principal credit for the reorganisation and rebuilding which took place between 1877 and 1879. Every educational charity in the Dorchester area was closely scrutinised, and Hardye's original endowment was supplemented by others whose original purpose had been outgrown. The unsatisfactory headmaster was dismissed, the school was rebuilt on the same site, and some of the features of the earlier Jacobean building were retained, including the old schoolroom, and the fine Jacobean screen which still survives in the present school library. It has been left for modern Dorchester to destroy the old schoolroom: had there been the slightest appreciation of its significance it would have been left alone. In that room some of the most far-reaching decisions ever to be made in Dorchester were taken, as we shall see.
When the school was finally reopened in 1883 it was given a new headmaster, H. N. Kingdon, who set about the difficult task of repairing the school's damaged fortunes and reputation. He was largely successful: virtually opening a new school, he slowly reached the total of 85 students, and by doing so became the first modern headmaster to face Dorchester's recurring problem, the demand for more accommodation. The governors' minutes for 1896 have a familiar ring about them:

September 28th . . . to consider the cost of providing chemical laboratories and other means of supplying technical instruction. . . .
December 4th. It was agreed that the erection of a science and technical block should take place. . . .

- there were problems enough, but at least these were the problems of expansion rather than decline. Early in the twentieth century the governors could report that they had successfully advertised entrance scholarships throughout the southern counties of England, and not much later they felt compelled to open a preparatory department to the school. But perhaps the best testimony to their success was shown in 1907, when the vacant headmastership attracted 153 applications - all of whom were required to be "of reasonable pecuniary resources".
Looking back into the previous centuries, one period stands out: the first half of the seventeenth century. In terms of reputation and educational standards the eighteenth century may have been more remarkable, but we lack the evidence to be sure. Thanks to the borough records, and to the private records of two old boys, Denis Bond and William Whiteway, we have an almost day-to-day account of everyday life in Dorchester for the years 1610-1650.
At every stage of its career the town has shown itself interested in the affairs of the school, and at its most successful periods this link between town and school has been strong and beneficial to both. But at no period have town and school been more closely identified than in the years preceding and during the Civil War. This was primarily due to the personalities of two men, Robert Cheeke, headmaster from 1595 until his death in 1627, and John White, Rector of St. Peter's and Holy Trinity, and for a few years personally in control of the school during the absence of Gabriel Reeve, who remained officially the headmaster. The influence of Cheeke and White upon the town was very strong indeed. Both were fervent Puritans. Between them they established an under-school near Holy Trinity church (this was finally absorbed into Hardye's School in the nineteenth century reorganisation); they established a brewery whose profits would benefit the town charities - (this was never incorporated with the school); Cheeke wrote and produced the first school plays ever seen in Dorchester, and the manuscript prologue to one of them survives in the British Museum; above all, both saw to it that Dorchester remained loyal to their own Puritan principles. They may have shown some intolerance: one native of Dorchester, educated at the school and for a while its under-master, was compelled to appeal to Archbishop Laud that he was being unjustly eased out of his position (despite his appeal, he was eased out). But in general they were simply furthering principles which most of the townsmen accepted. Clarendon wrote of Dorchester:

When the great revellion broke out, a place more disaffected to the King England had not. It was the magazine whence other places were supplied with principles of rebellion, and was a considerable place, and seat of great malignity.

Typical of the Dorchester of this time, and of its "malignant" spirit, were two former pupils of the school, and one governor, all of whom made their mark on the Puritan movement in England; and one Puritan old boy who carried his principles far beyond the boundaries of Dorset, and indeed of England.
Denis Bond, a close friend of John White, had been a boy at the school in the late sixteenth century, and he became one of its governors. So strong were his anti-royalist principles that he was selected as one of the judges at the trial of King Charles I, although he was one among a number of them whose signature did not appear on the king's death-warrant. Whatever his reasons for not signing, they were not scruples about the deed, for he became one of the select members of Cromwell's Council of State, and served the Protector wholeheartedly. So whole-heartedly, indeed, that one of the royalist commentators left this account of his death :

On the 30th day of August 1658, being one of the windiest days of the year, he paid his last debt to nature, being then tormented with strangury and anxiety of spirit. At which time, as then the vulgar talk was, the Devil came to take away Oliver Cromwell who then lay on his death-bed, but being not prepared for him, he gave BOND for his future appearance . . .

The Puritans buried him in Westminster Abbey, but after the Restoration he was, in common with many of the regicides, disinterred and, eventually, reburied in St. Margaret's, Westminster.
His son, John Bond, entering the school in the 1620s, came more directly under the influence of John White. As a result he was equally in support of the Puritan cause. He became preacher to the Long Parliament, Professor of Law at Gresham College (a post which he obtained after the Puritans had removed an unsympathetic occupant), and, in 1658, Vice-Chancellor of Cambridge University. The restoration of the monarchy in 1660 brought his removal, however, and he died in seclusion in the Isle of Purbeck without ever regaining high office.
As the masters and pupils of the school thought, so did the governors. Chief among these was Denzil Holles, who, despite his earlier friendship with Charles I, raised a regiment of rebel soldiers in Dorset and Somerset when the war broke out. However, he eventually opposed the supremacy of the Army as vigorously as he had opposed the supremacy of the king, and he had the distinction of being imprisoned by Charles I in one decade, and by Cromwell in the next. When the restoration came Holles was closely associated with General Monk in negotiations with Charles II; he was compensated for his pains by the title of Baron and membership of the Privy Council.
One other figure, John Humphrey, had left the school for Trinity College, Cambridge, and had then emigrated to New England. But he, too, had imbibed Puritanism at Dorchester, and he returned in 1642 to become a Colonel in the Puritan army. At the trial of Charles I two old boys of Dorchester were present: on the bench sat Denis Bond; bearing the sword of state before the judges was John Humphrey.
Humphrey had also been involved in a more far-reaching outcome of the Puritan ideal, as his departure for New England shows. It seems to have been a Dorchester merchant, Richard Bushrod, who first put forward the idea of a new Dorchester in America. After many delays Bushrod received permission from the Council of New England to proceed with his plans, and the school-room in Dorchester - the very one so recently destroyed - became the centre for "The New England Plantation Parliament". Dominated by John White, and with a committee made up entirely of associates of the school, the "parliament" gradually prepared the way for the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Of the 120 people who made up the original company, some 60 can be shown to be connected with the school as ex-pupils, governors, or teachers. Of these a handful were related, either directly or by marriage, to the school's founder. They may have been less optimistic about the future had they known that a large part of Dorchester, Mass. was to become the negro ghetto of twentieth-century Boston.
Probably Dorchester's only link with these, some of the most significant meetings ever held in the town is the old screen in the Hardye's School library, beneath which a new town and a new state were planned.
These are just a few details of one of the most remarkable periods in the history of Hardye's School. Strictly, of course, they are part of the history of the town: yet at this period, scarcely half a century after its foundation, the school had become so vitally integrated with town life that any distinction between it and the surrounding community seems a false one. If Dorchester was indeed a centre of Puritanism the school, together with the town churches, was its breeding-place. One could argue that a school should not be a centre of extremist opinion, but to do so would be to apply modern conditions inappropriately: the early seventeenth century was an age of extremism, and no school functioning at anything more than a routine level could have avoided involvement on one side or the other.
In a sense the more outstanding and the more decadent moments of the school's career were focussed on July 21, 1927, when Thomas Hardy, O.M. laid the foundation-stone for the new school buildings. For Hardy had never been educated at the school founded by his ancestor. His early years were also the very years of the school's decline, and in his autobiography he merely comments, perhaps over­generously, that the grammar school "was reported to be indifferent just then". But his presence in 1927 also suggested greater hopes for the future, and was a climax to the efforts which had been made since 1883. Most national and local newspapers could see a special significance in the event, and one local columnist wrote:

That a Thomas Hardy, a benefactor of renown in Elizabeth's days, should have founded the school, and that another Thomas Hardy, the greatest figure in English literature and poetry, should, nearly four hundred years later, have laid his hand on the stone which commemorated the building of a school greater than the founder could ever have thought of, is a combination of events to make a vivid appeal to the imagination. . .

Hardy himself paid tribute in his address to the capability and idealism of a new and young headmaster, and added "certainly everything promises well". Had he lived to watch the growth of Hardye's School under that young and vigorous man, the late R. W. Hill, he would have felt his hopes to have been justified. The modern Hardye's School is in many ways different from the school of 1569; yet it remains the same school. And surely the founder would have believed that in 1969, as in 1569, his purposes were being carried out: that the present success and stature of Hardye's School

will tend to the laudable increase for ever of Learning and Learned men, whereby God's glory shall be the more highly advanced and our undoubted Sovragne the more duly obeyed, the Laws better observed, and the Commonwealth, and especially the vulgar sort, the rather reduced from Ignorance and Barbarism to a more singular excellency, and proceeding as well in manners as in learning and virtue from time to time until the end of all eternity. . .


* * * * *

[Dr. Frank Southerington , a native of Abbotsbury, was at Hardye's from 1949 to 1957, when he went to University College, London with a State Scholarship. After gaining his B.A.(Hons.) in English, he moved on to Magdalen College, Oxford. with a research scholarship, which led to the degree of B.Litt.(Oxon). From 1964 he held appointments at the Royal University of Uppsala, Sweden, as a lecturer in English, and at Abo University, Finland as an English tutor. During this period he worked on a thesis on Thomas Hardy's work, for which he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy of Oxford University. He is now a Professor of English at the University of Staunton, Virginia, U.S.A.]


No record before 1580
1580-85 REV. EDWARD DOUGHTY, M.A., St. John's College, Cambridge. (Scholar.) Rector of Holy Trinity and St. Peter's. Chaplain to the English fleet during the Spanish campaigns of 1597, and the sack of Cadiz. Chaplain to King James I.
1585-95 REV. HENRY HARRIS, M.A., St. Alban Hall, Oxford.
1595-1627 REV. ROBERT CHEEKE, M.A., Magdalen Hall, Oxford. Rebuilt the school in 1618 after destruction by fire. Sponsored the New England expeditions 1620-30. Produced Latin plays at the school.
1627-28 JOHN BRANCKER, B.A., New College, Oxford. Probably an old boy. Sailed to New England . Schoolmaster of Windsor, Mass. One of the first Freemen of Dorchester, Mass.
1628-32 REV. GABRIEL REEVE, M.A., New College, Oxford. Missing in 1632.
1632-?35 REV. JOHN WHITE, M.A., New College, Oxford. Puritan divine and preacher to the Long Parliament. Rector of St. Peter's and Holy Trinity. Sponsor of the Mayflower expedition. Founder of Dorchester, Massachusetts, and the New England Company.
1635?-51 GABRIEL REEVE, M.A., reinstated, after being missing for about two years before the Civil War. Finally removed by the Governors in 1651 after a lengthy dispute.
1651-57 REV. SAMUEL CROMLEHOLME, M.A., Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Formerly under-master at St. Paul's School, and headmaster of the Mercer's Chapel school. Afterwards High Master of St. Paul's. A friend of Samuel Pepys.
1657-62 REV. ANTHONY WITHERS, LLB., New College, Oxford.
1662-64 REV. JOHN STEVENS, M.A., Trinity College, Oxford. Formerly headmaster of Merchant Taylor's School and Bristol Grammar School.
1664-77 REV. HENRY DOLLING, M.A., Wadham College, Oxford. Translated The Whole Duty of Man into Latin; licensed for publication 1678.(The bound MS of this was in the school in 1959.) Samuel Wesley's first book of poems was satirically dedicated to him.
1677-?1707 REV. WILLIAM LEIGH, M.A., Queen's College, Oxford. D.D. of Cambridge.
?1707-1721 REV. WILLIAM THORNTON, M.A., Hart Hall, Oxford.
1721-25 REV. JOHN JACOB, LLB., Oriel College, Oxford.
1725-36 REV. CONYERS PLACE, M.A., Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge.
1749-81 REV. JOHN HUBBOCK, M.A., St. John's College, Oxford. Rector of Frome Vauchurch and Batcombe, St. Peter's and Holy Trinity, Prebendary of Chichester.
1781-86 REV. GEORGE WATSON, M.A., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
1787-90 REV. JOHN CUTLER, M.A., Exeter College, Oxford. Afterwards Master of Sherborne School.
1790-1815 REV. HENRY JOHN RICHMAN, M.A., Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Rector of St. Peter's and Holy Trinity.
1815-24 REV. EVAN DAVIES, M .A., Jesus College, Oxford.
1824-46 REV. RICHARD CUTLER, M.A., Exeter College, Oxford. Son of John Cutler.
1846-79 REV. THOMAS RATSEY MASKEW, M.A., Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge; "without influence or public confidence in the town".
1879-83 School closed. Rebuilt and re-opened, January I, 1883.
1883-98 REV. HERBERT NAPIER KINGDON, M.A., Corpus Christi College, Oxford.
1898-1907 S. A. ROOTHAM, M.A., formerly Master of Bristol Cathedral School.
1907-27 H. A. FRANCIS, M.A.
1927-55 R. W. HILL, M.A., St. John's College, Oxford. C.B.E. 1951.
1955- A. N. HAMILTON , M.A., Exeter College, Oxford.


This year Hardye's School celebrated its Quatercentenary. According to tradition, in 1569 Thomas Hardye of Frampton in the County of Dorset, gent, endowed a school in Dorchester, or, rather re­endowed a school that was already in existence.
This earlier school was founded and maintained by the townspeople. The accounts for its building can still be seen.* In particular one notices "item, paide unto John Roye in part of his work the last of November, 1567, xxs".
However, though the townspeople were willing, they were "unable to sustain such continual burden and charge" and so they persuaded Thomas Hardye "to aid and supply those necessary wants".
Accordingly Thomas Hardye endowed the Free School in Dorchester. No copy of the original deed has been found, but there exists a copy believed to have been made for Robert Napper in 1631.**
This deed is dated 3rd August "in the one and twentieth year of the reigne of our sovragne Lady Elizabeth", that is, 1579. The list of headmasters, as given by Hutchins, begins with one Edward Doughty in 1580.
So far, then, it appears that the school was refounded in 1579 or 1580. The support for the traditional view, that Hardye founded the school ten years earlier is slight. Both Bond's chronology,*** and William Whitways diary,**** it is true, give the date as 1569, but both these documents were written long after the event. Bond for example, mentions Hardye's "monymont" in St. Peter's Church, which was erected by the town in 1629.
The only grammar school in Dorchester in 1569, when Hardye's School is supposed to have been founded, was the Free school, with which as far as we know, Hardye had no connexions. The "long­ suffering" tone of the townsmen's appeal to Hardye, as contained in the preamble to the deed of endowment, suggests that they had tried to maintain the school for some time before they were forced to appeal to Hardye for aid. As the building of the school only began in 1567, this very fact alone renders 1569 unlikely as the date of endowment.
The date of the deed of endowment is 1579: the first headmaster was appointed in 1580. The logical conclusion, supported by the weight of the evidence is that Hardye's School, as such, only dates from 1579-80.
Could it be, then, that we at Hardye's are celebrating our Quatercentenary ten years too early?

* Account book C2 of the Municipal Records. ** Dorset Records B. 53. *** Dorset Records MF 63. **** British Museum Egerton Mss.


Perhaps one of the most amusing entries connected with the History of the School is to be found in the Borough Record of 1699. Nov. 24:

"The information of Conyers Place, Schoolemaister of the Free Schoole, who on his oath saith that for severall tymes severall boyes of this Towne have disturbed this informant's Schoole by knocking at the Schoole Dore, and throwing in greate stones and some smaller ones into the passage or entry of the Schoole; the boyes who have been guilty hereof as this informant is credibly informed, are Mr. Derbie's two sonnes, Mr. Maber's sonne, Mrs Gigger's sonne, Farmer Light's sonne and Mr. William Coxe's sonne. He refused to take his oath, but all were sent for, and most appearing confessed their faults, and are very submissive, promised to doe soe no more and are forgiven".



How well I remember that spring day in 1883, when accompanied by my brother, Michael, and several others,I proceeded to the New School, which had been opened the previous term, in order take my entrance exam.
With what awe did we regard the new and bearded Headmaster, Mr. Kingdon, who presided over us in what used, then, to be the 1st Class (Top) form-room, a medium-size room at the end of the long passage which leads out to the asphalted playground!
In spite of trembling hand and shaky nerves, I succeeded in passing, though I will admit that one of us, whose name shall not be mentioned, got into such a state of nerves that he essayed a short division sum with the bracket at the wrong end!
My purpose, however, is not to describe my school-days there, but rather to contrast the past with the present in so far as buildings and facilities are concerned.
At that time there was no chemical laboratory, and the only building outside the ordinary classrooms was an ancient and delapidated one-storey carpenters' shop, which was used mostly for fights, of which there were many in those days.
Forty-five years is a big slice in the life of man: but a small one in that of a building. It may, therefore, be reasonably asked why it was found necessary to rebuild in so comparatively short a time.
I fear the governing body of that time was somewhat lacking in foresight. Had they possessed a clearer vision of the future, that New School of 1883 would never have been built on the site of the old school, right in the centre of the busiest street in the town, and with no playing fields attached. Rather should they have followed the example of Blundells, Tiverton, who rebuilt about the same time on a site outside the town, with ample playing fields.
The School was therefore handicapped from the start by having to make use of the Dorchester Cricket Ground, which at that time was situate where now are the houses built by Mr. Edward Duke and the late Mr. Huxtable at the top end of Prince of Wales Road. Later on, a field was acquired in rear of the School, between Charles Street and Acland Road.
This field, though very small, served the purpose, until it was sold for building.
Then the School had to cast about for fresh accommodation , and a field was rented on the South Court Estate. On the outbreak of the Great War, this field was taken by the Ministry of Agriculture and ploughed up for allotments. After that, the School had to rely on the courtesy of the Dorchester Cricket Club once more, and although the Club did its best to oblige, the position was far from satisfactory, to say nothing of the long distance from the School.
Thus it was not surprising that the Board of Education recently condemned the site as being unsatisfactory, and commented on the lack of playing fields.
It was in 1922 that the Governors purchased ten acres of land, part of Fordington Farm, from the Duchy of Cornwall. Since then, a further five acres have been added, and in the near future it will no doubt be found necessary to add yet more acres, owing to the rapid growth in the number of pupils.
In March, 1927, the new buildings were commenced, and were finished in time for the opening of the summer term in May, 1928.
Previous to that, the cricket and football grounds had been laid out and consolidated, so the School can now boast of some of the most up-to-date premises possible.
The layout plan has been most carefully arranged so as to provide for every possible extension and addition.
Up to the present, an amount of over £23,000 has already been spent, and I consider that another £20,000 will be needed before the School is equipped as it should be.
A Headmaster's house in the School grounds, with accommodation for boarders, must come one day, though the recently acquired boarding house in South Walks is giving us a good start.
A gymnasium, and refectory for mid-day meals are already under consideration.
A properly built cricket pavilion is another need. The large outlay above referred to has, however, severely taxed the School's resources, so for the present we must fain be patient in the hope that, as in times past, fresh benefactors may disclose themselves and enable us to complete the work so successfully begun.